Jesus of Nazareth - Judea

Jesus of Nazareth - Galilee

Holy Week

Palm Sunday - Mark 11:1

Holy Monday - Mark 11:12

Holy Tuesday - Mark 11:20

Holy Wednesday - Mark 14:1

Holy Thursday - Mark 14:12

Good Friday - Mark 15:1

Holy Saturday - Between Mark 15:42 and 16:1

Easter Sunday - Mark 16:2

Holy Week

Palm Sunday - Morning - Mark 11:1; Evening - Mark 11:11

Holy Monday - Morning - Mark 11:12; Evening - Mark 11:19

Holy Thursday - Morning - Mark 14:12; Evening - Mark 14:17

Good Friday

6 am - Mark 15:1

9 am - Mark 15:25

12 pm - Mark 15:33

3 pm - Mark 15:34

6 pm - Mark 15:42

Palm Sunday

Palm Sunday (Mark 11:1-11)


Passover Feast - a celebration of Freedom;

Two Processions - One of Pilates and One of Jesus;

The cult of the Emperor (Cesar Augustus 31 BC - 14 CE - began it; Tiberius 14 CE - 37 CE - next in line)

The Gospel seen as a journey to Jerusalem - particularly from Mark 8:27-30;

Entering Jerusalem - the significance of mounting a colt (1 Kings 1:38-40; Zec 9:9-10);

Three Passovers in John

John 2:13-25 - cleansing the temple;

John 6:4 - the Passover of multiplication;

John 12:1,13:1 - the Passover of death and resurrection.


Synoptics have only the Passover of death and resurrection.


Galilee - 200 m below see level;

Jericho - over 400 m below see level;

Jerusalem - 760 m above see level.

Jesus climbs up to Jerusalem.

But which one - which Jerusalem?

Hebr 9:24

And the way leads through the Cross.

Blind Bartimaeus

Following Jesus on the way (Mk 10:46-52).

Bethphage and Bethany

Mk 11:1 - From this side Messiah was expected to come.

Mk 11:3 - Jesus claims the right of kings to get for themselves the means of transport.

A colt was not used by anybody - another prerogative of king.

Gen 49:10-11 and Zech 9:9;

Jesus’ way is already ‘foreseen’ in the Scripture.

Lk 19:35

Lk 19:35

They placed Jesus on the animal.

See 1 Kings 1:33-34; See also 2 Kings 9:13

Then, the people sing (Ps 118:25-26).

Hosanna - “Help/Save us!”

Ps 118:25-26

During the feast of Tabernacles, the priests prayed it, interceding for “rain”.

But, slowly, it turn into an expectation of the Messiah.

Blessed the one who comes.

It was a greeting. With these words, the pilgrims arriving to Jerusalem or into the Temple were welcomed.

We bless you from the house of the Lord.

That how the priests of the temple blessed the pilgrims.

The One who comes in the name of God

Mt 21:10-11.

Those who sang “Hossana” were those who came with Jesus, not the people of Jerusalem (See Mt 2:3).

It seem that Jesus was not known in Jerusalem.

Mt 21:15 - children sang in the Temple! (Ps 8:2).

Mk 10:13-16 - Mk 9:33-37

Child becomes a symbol of (1) someone who believes; (2) Jesus the Son who does the will of the Father.

Didache (100 AD)

10:6 Let grace come, and let this world pass away.

Hosanna to the Son of David.

If any one is holy let him come (to the Eucharist);

if any one is not, let him repent. Maranatha. Amen.

Holy Monday

Holy Monday

Mark 11:12-19.

The fig tree and the cleansing of the temple;

Mark’s “sandwich” (example A’ - Mark 5:21-24; B Mark 5:25-34; A’’ - Mark 5:35-43);


A’ - The fig tree is cursed and the disciples hear it;

B - Cleansing of the Temple;

A’’ - the fig tree withered and Peter noticed it

The end of the Temple

Jer 7:1-15; Jer 26:5-6;

Shiloh - Joshua 18:1, and 1 Samuel 1:3 - according to the Jewish tradition Shiloh was serving as a sanctuary for nearly 400 years and then in 11th century was destroyed by the Philistines.

The “den of thieves” -

66 AC - the first Jewish war - the Zealots taking over Jerusalem - the rule of terror in the city, they kill the elites that collaborated with the Romans, abolished priesthood and chose one from the people as a high priest.

A house of prayer

Mk 11:17 and Is 56:7;

In the Temple itself there was a huge place for the Gentiles. It invited all people to pray to the One God.

John 12:20

Gentiles longed for God (John 12:21; Acts 16:9).

How will they see him? How will they meet him?

On the Cross. Through the message about the crucified and risen Christ (John 12:23-24).

But, the crucifixion of Jesus means the end of the Temple.

There will be a new temple - His Body - the Church where all nations can worship God in spirit and truth (John 4:23).

Mt 21:14

Mt 21:14;

2 Samuel 5:6-8;

What is the true meaning of the Temple?

To bring healing to the broken people of the world.

Business versus healing.

John 2:17

John 2:17

The one who is zealous about God’s temple is often isolated (Ps 69:2,8,10).

This zeal consume Jesus till the point of death on the Cross.

The zeal of the Cross - to give life for our salvation.

Holy Tuesday

Holy Tuesday

long day, many things happened

Mark 11:27-13:37;


1. Chief priests, scribes, and elders - About Christ’s power - then Jesus’ parable about the leaders of Israel;

2. The Pharisees and Herodians (Mark 3:6) About the taxes;

3. The Sadducees - about the resurrection;

4. One the scribes - about the greatest commandment. After that no one dare to ask him any more questions (Mark 12:33);

5. Then Jesus asks one question about the identity of the Messiah - only a son of David?

6. Jesus then warns people against the scribes;

7. Jesus sits over against the treasury

8. Jesus finally leaves the temple (Mark 13:1)

Jesus’ speech about the future-I

Two parts:

1. The destruction of Jerusalem (Mark 13:2);

2. The signs preceding the incoming destruction and the coming of the Lord.

Jesus’ speech about the future-II

1. False prophets and messiahs;

2. News about wars;

3. Earthquakes and famine;

4. Persecutions;

5. Abomination in the temple;

6. Extreme suffering;

7. Cosmic chaos;

8. Return of the Son of Man

Jesus’ speech about the future-III

The advice of Jesus’s followers;

1. Don’t let anyone deceive you;

2. Run to the mountains;

3. Stay awake/ alert.

Jerusalem, Jerusalem

Mt 23:37-38; Lk 13:34-35 (see Deut 32:10-11; Ps 36:8).

Is 31:5.

In all these passages we see God’s love for the city. But, this love was not mutual one. “You did not want”.

And so, God leaves (Jer 12:7; Mt 23:38).


Before the siege of the Temple, the Christians escaped across the Jordan (Mk 13:14).

So sources says that Christ told them to leave.

Others says that in summer 66 AD, high priest Annas was chosen as one of the leaders to lead the war against Romans.

But, in 62 AD he put to death James, the brother of the Lord.

Christians leaving the place also meant “no” to zealots who violently fought against Romans.

How many people died?

In 68 AD, Nero died. Vespasian, the general who led the army, had to go to Rome.

July 1, 69 AD, Vespasian was chosen as the Emperor. Titus, his son, had to continue the war.

40 years after the crucifixion of Jesus, Titus arrived at Jerusalem (it was the day of Passover, 14 Nisan).

What happened then is summarised in Mk 13:19 (Daniel 12:1).

August 5, 70 AD, because of hunger, the daily sacrificed stopped. The temple was never rebuilt.

It was a real tragedy. Now, there was no place to offer sacrifices for sins. God also lost his place on earth.

Judaism of Sadducces did not survived.

What survived was Christianity and Judaism of Pharisees (Rabbinic one).

From sacrifices to Eucharist

Even before the temple was still standing the Christians did not participate any more in sacrifices.

Acts 2:46

Then, there is Stephen (Acts 7:49-50) quoting Isaiah 66:1-2.

The thought of Stephen was taken up by Paul.

Paul had many problems with other Jewish Christians, but notice one thing:

He never had a problem regarding the temple and the temple sacrifices. And yet many priests became Christians (Acts 6:7). Why?


This was the cover of the ark of the covenant.

On the day of atonement, this place was sprinkled with the blood of sacrifices (Lev 16).

Now, Paul uses this term to Christ (Rom 3:23-25).

Jesus is “hilasterion” the living presence of God.

In Him took place the real sacrifice.

He is the New Temple

Time of the Gentiles

Lk 21:24.

Between the destruction of Jerusalem and the end of the ages (world), Luke places “the time of Gentiles”.

See also Mt 24:14; Mk 13:10

Time of the Gentiles

Rom 11:25-26

(1) until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in.

(2) And in this way all Israel will be saved.

So, before the end of the world comes, these two conditions had to be fulfilled.

In the meantime, the Gospel has to be preached to all the nations (1 Cor 9:16).

For the first Christians, the world can reach its aim only when the Gospel reaches all the nations.

Be ready

Since we do not know the hour, we need to be always ready.

Mk 13:33-36; Mt 24:45-51; Lk 12:41-46; and 2 Thess 3:10-12.

Persecution (Mk 13:9)

Preaching of the Gospel will always be under the sign of the Cross.

The Cross is and will remain the sign of the Son of Man.

Mk 13:24-27

Mk 13:24-27

Jesus uses Is 13:10; 34:4; Dan 7:13, Zech 2:6;

But, now the Son of Man from the book of Daniel is in the midst of the disciples.

Mk 13:31 - Time will be changing, but Jesus remains; time will be changing but Jesus’ words remain.

Jesus speaks about the future using the words of the past.

But, in this way, this future goes beyond the time.

Here, we can realise the importance of the Bible.

The Bible, the Word of God, is truly a lamp for our feet.

Holy Wednesday

Holy Wednesday

Mark 14:1-14;

Anointing in Bethany;

Judas - one of the Twelve - decides to betray Jesus;

The failure of the disciples (Mk 8:31-9:1; Mark 9:31-37; 10:33-45);

The third prediction of Passion -I

We are going up to Jerusalem,” he said, “and the Son of Man will be delivered over to the chief priests and the teachers of the law (Mark 10:33).

Then Judas Iscariot, one of the Twelve, went to the chief priests to betray Jesus to them. 11 They were delighted to hear this and promised to give him money. So he watched for an opportunity to hand him over (Mark 14:10-11).

They will condemn him to death (Mark 10:33);

The high priest tore his clothes. “Why do we need any more witnesses?” he asked. 64 “You have heard the blasphemy. What do you think?” They all condemned him as worthy of death (Mark 14:63-64).

The third prediction of Passion - II

They … will hand him over to the Gentiles (Mark 10:33);

Very early in the morning, the chief priests, with the elders, the teachers of the law and the whole Sanhedrin, made their plans. So they bound Jesus, led him away and handed him over to Pilate (Mark 15:1).

[Gentiles] … will mock him and spit on him (Mark 10:34);

The soldiers led Jesus away into the palace (that is, the Praetorium) and called together the whole company of soldiers. 17 They put a purple robe on him, then twisted together a crown of thorns and set it on him. 18 And they began to call out to him, “Hail, king of the Jews!” 19 Again and again they struck him on the head with a staff and spit on him. Falling on their knees, they paid homage to him. 20 And when they had mocked him (Mark 15:16-20a)

The third prediction of Passion - III

[Gentiles] flog him (Mark 10:34)

Wanting to satisfy the crowd, Pilate released Barabbas to them. He had Jesus flogged, and handed him over to be crucified (Mark 15:15);

and kill him (Mark 10:34);

And they crucified him (Mark 15:24).

Three days later he will rise (Mark 10:34).

“You are looking for Jesus the Nazarene, who was crucified. He has risen! He is not here. See the place where they laid him (Mark 16:6).

Thus, Jesus clearly knew what was about to take place.

But, the disciples could not understand his message.

In memory of her

The one who understood was the unknown woman:

1. Her anointing the proclamation that Jesus is the Messiah;

2. Her anointing also shows her faith in Jesus’ resurrection.

Holy Thursday

Holy Thursday

Many things happened on that day

Mark 14:12-72.

During the day, the disciples prepare the Passover meal;

In the evening Jesus celebrates the Passover with his disciples - but he does not complete it;

Then, he prays about the cup of suffering and he is arrested.

Washing the Feet

John 13:1 - finally the “hour” has come (see John 2:4).

It is the hour of “departure” from this world to the Father;

It is the hour of “love-agape” till the end (Jn 19:30).

John 13:4-5

Phil 2:7 - Washing of the feet explains this passage.

Rev 7:14 - what washes us is Christ’s love.

You are clean

Before man can stand before God he has to become “clean”.

Mk 7:14-23 - purity is a matter of heart.

But, how can a human heart become clean/pure?

How can Mt 5:8 be realised in our lives?

Acts 15:5-11 - Faith in Jesus purifies our hearts.

And faith is a gift from God.

It is not just an act of our own decisions.

It comes when the Holy Spirit moves our hearts, opens them and purifies them.

You are clean

John 15:3 - Christ’s word purifies us. It transforms us from within. But Christ’s word is Christ Himself.

“You are clean/pure”.

Christ made them clean - purified their hearts.

But, from this gift of purity, they need to act like people who are pure.

And so baptism leads to a new way of life.

Jesus is tried and condemned to death. What gets him condemned to death? (Daniel 7:13-14, compare also Acts 7:56);

Jesus does not deny himself - he confesses his divine identity. But Peter denies Jesus.

Mark 8:38 and Mark 16:7 - between these two are the tears of Peter.


John 13:21;

Jesus is deeply moved 3 times (John 11:33; John 11:38; See also John 12:24-27 and John 13:21).

Each time, Jesus faces the mystery of death he is called to defeat.

Ps 41:10 - see Ps 55:14

God’s words reveal Judas and explain his action. In this way, he becomes a part of the history of salvation. That is how Jesus and later on the Church looked at the Scripture.

Which means, that we are also “within the Scripture”.

Today, within the Church, there are those who “take the Eucharist bread” and betray Jesus.

In that moment, Jesus took on himself, the pain of all those betrayed, embracing the entire history.


John 13:27

Whoever breaks friendship with Christ becomes a slave to someone else.


Breaking friendship with Christ is an outcome of opening ourselves up to the influence of someone else.

Mt 27:3 - I have sinned.

The first step to repentance.

But, he could not believe that his sin could be forgiven.

Judas despaired.

And it was dark/night

John 13:30

Judas leaves the light of Christ and enters the darkness (Jn 3:19; Lk 22:53).

Judas can explain Hebr 6:4. And thus, warn us that such a possibility remains.


John 13:8 (see Mt 16:22).

Peter still cannot imagine that God’s messiah can act in such a strange way.

Lord, where are you going?

John 7:35 - to Greeks? He will go there after Easter - proclaimed by the disciples.

John 8:22 - kill himself? No. But he will die for us (John 10:18).

John 13:36 - Jesus

John 13:37 - Peter.


John 21:18

Peter had to learn again how to follow Christ. Only then, he shall be ready to go where before he did not want to go.

One more note. Peter’s denial was also a grave sin (Mt 10:33). And yet, Peter somehow did not despair. He cried.

From Confession to the Eucharist

John 13:10

“Having been bathed” can only referred to baptism.

How about “washing the feet?” - confession of faith.

1 John 1:8-10; James 5:16

Before, we can sit around the Eucharist table, we need to confess our sins.

The way to the Eucharist leads through the sacrament of confession.

That is also the reason, why at the beginning of the Mass, we publicly acknowledge our sins.

Jesus’ Prayer - John 17

It is called high priestly prayer.

It has relation with the day of atonement (Lev 16; Lev 23:26-32).

Aim of that liturgy

Atonement is to be made for the sins of the high priest, his family (all the priests), and the entire people (Lev 16:16-17).

The aim of this day and the ritual - the restore the character of Israel as ‘the holy people of God” in the midst of the world.

Jesus’ prayer in John 17:

1. He prays for himself;

2. For his apostles;

3. For those who will believe in Christ because of the apostles (John 17:20).

Jesus’ death on the Cross is the true day of atonement.


This is eternal life (Jn 17:3)

BIOS - Lk 8:14;

Psuche - Mt 16:25; Psuche embraces thoughts, will, and emotions.

Zoe - John 1:4; ZOE - which is in God and with which He wants to share with us.

Zoe. It is a real life, it can and should begin here (Jn 11:25-26).

Jn 14:19 - Christ’s great promise.

How to gain Zoe?

Through “knowing” in Biblical sense.

To come to know someone is to come into deep communion with him/her. Like Adam and Eve (Gen 4:1).

To know God and Jesus Christ.

Eternal life

Comes through relation with Christ.

In death we can lose “bios” but united with Christ, we cannot lose “zoe”.

Consecrate them in truth

Jn 17:17,19 - add John 10:36

The Father consecrates the Son and sends Him into the world.

The Son consecrates Himself

The Son asks the Father that His disciples be consecrated in truth.

Consecrate/ Sanctify. What does it mean?

To give, surrender something or person to God.

Ex 13:2; Deut 15:19;

Ex 28:41 - priestly consecration.

Israel was ‘consecrated’, chosen from all the nations, to be God’s holy people.

They were called to be witnesses of God among all the nations.

Consecrate them in truth


John 10:36 - Incarnation;

John 17:19 - Offer himself as a sacrifice - Passion, the Cross.

Jn 17:17 - Like Jesus, they need to belong fully to God in order to be sent to the world.

Ex 29:1-9 - the consecration of Aaron took place through putting on garments and anointing with oil.

In the case of the apostles - it is the truth that is their garment and anointing.

In the final analysis, the truth is Christ himself.

I revealed Your name

Jn 17:6,26.

Here, Jesus shows himself as a new Moses.

“God’s name” means God who is present among His people (Deut 12:11).

Jesus revealed God’s name as a new way of God’s presence among the people.

John 14:9 - In Christ, God enters in a new and radical way the history of humanity.

In Jesus, God became man.

The aim of revealing God’s name

Jn 17:26 - God’s love;

One more note. This revelation of God’s name is not something of the past.

“And will still reveal”.

In Christ, God continues to come to people (Jn 12:32).

That all maybe one

Jn 17:21-22.

What kind of unite was Jesus praying for?

There are two answers. One comes from the Protestants and one from the Catholics.

Protestants - Spiritual unity.

But, how can a world recognise something it cannot see?

How can spiritual unity make people recognise that Jesus was sent by the Father?

Catholics - Concrete unity among the believers of Christ that can be see by the world.

This unity can only be granted by God.

It begins with faith in Jesus Christ (Jn 6:69).

It leads to a communion with Christ and with those who believe in Christ.

This unity also leads to mission (Jn 20:21 - see Jn 7:16).

Like Jesus, so the disciples. Their teaching cannot be theirs.

Jn 16:13 - they need to be guided by the Holy Spirit.


1. Apostolic succession;

2. Canon of the Scriptures;

3. The rule of faith - the Creed.

Last Supper

The Date

Mk 14:12,17 - the first day of Unleavened Bread, in the evening.

On that day in the temple the lambs of sacrifice were being slaughtered.

It was Thursday. After the sunset, people began the celebration of the Passover.

Jn 13:1-2; 18:28.

According to John, the Last Supper is not a passover meal.

Jesus dies at the hour when the lambs were sacrificed in the temple.

And after the sunset, the Passover feast began.

So, according to Mark, Matthew, and Luke the Passover began on Thursday evening.

According to John, the Passover that year began on Friday evening.

Who is right?

Today, it is difficult to say.

Benedict XVI thinks John’s timing is right.

Jesus knew that he would not live till Passover, so he established His own passover meal - making a day ahead.

Lk 22:15-16 - “this passover” can refer to Jesus’ passover.

1 Cor 5:7 - Christ is our passover.

Institution of the Eucharist

1 Cor 11:23-26 (written around 56 AD) - but, since Paul received, this tradition has to b much earlier.

Mk 14:22, Mt 26:26;

1 Cor 11:24; Lk 22:19.

“This is my blood” (Mk and Mt); “my blood of the covenant” (see Ex 24:8); - blood “for many” (see Is 53:12);

Eulogia - praising (God for all His gifts).

Lk/ Paul - “the new covenant in my blood” (see Jer 31:31) - “for you” - for the disciples.

Eucharisteo - Eucharist (1 Tim 4:4-5 - eucharisteo). It is a thanksgiving - thanksgiving and praise directed to God.

Broke the bread

Breaking and sharing - creates a community.

Breaking bread was a function of a father in a Jewish family, who represented God the Father.

Mk 6:41

In the Acts “breaking bread” was the “word” to describe the Eucharist (Acts 2:42).

This is my body

Given for you.

This is me and I do it because I love you (Jn 10:18).

It will be realised on the Cross but it is given here.

This is my blood

Ex 24:8; Jer 31:31, Is 53:12.

Ex 24:8 leads to Jer 31:31.

Ex 24:8 - there is the blood of the animals and the word of God and the promise of obedience (Ex 24:7-8).

But this promise was being constantly broken.

Beside, the blood of the animals was not sufficient.

So Jeremiah promised a new and better covenant. But, who could be always faithful?

This servant from Is 53:12 is Jesus Christ (2 Tim 2:13).

Rom 5:16-20 - Jesus’ death overcomes every evil.

Being For

Christ’s whole existence was for others.

But what is the meaning “for many” (Mk 10:45)?

The answer is in 1 Tim 2:6.

See also Rom 11:25-26; John 11:50-51

The Eucharist on Easter

Luke/Paul - “do this in memory of me”.

What to do in his memory?

Thanksgiving prayer over the bread and cup.

Why? It was the memory of His death.

But it is not only the memory of His death.

His body and blood is also the gift of resurrection.

Acts 20:7

Acts 20:7.

Very early, the Eucharist was celebrated as the encounter with the risen One.

The first day of the week has become the day of the Lord (Rev 1:10; see also 1 Cor 16:2)

But on every Lord's day gather yourselves together, and break bread, and give thanksgiving after having confessed your transgressions, that your sacrifice may be pure (Didache 14.1).

Living in the observance of the Lord’s day was a characteristic sign of Christians.


Because on that day our life has sprung up again through Christ (St. Ignatius of Antioch).


Before going there, Jesus prays with Psalms (Mk 14:26).

What shall I return to the Lord

or all his goodness to me?

I will lift up the cup of salvation

and call on the name of the Lord.

Precious in the sight of the Lord

is the death of his faithful servants.

Truly I am your servant, Lord;

I serve you just as my mother did;

you have freed me from my chains.

I will sacrifice a thank offering to you

and call on the name of the Lord (Ps 116:12-13,15-17; see also Psalm 118:5,17-22).

Mk 14:32

Jn 18:1; 19:41 - garden - a reference to the garden of Eden where the first sin took place.

History repeats itself - another sin takes place - the betrayal takes place in the garden.

But, also in the garden life defeated death.

Za 13:7 - Mt 26:31.

Jesus, the Shepherd of Israel and the Shepherd of humanity (Jn 10:11).

But Mk 14:28 - A shepherd goes ahead of his sheep.

This Shepherd gives life for us and leads us.

Jesus’ Prayer

Mt 26:36-46; Mk 14:32-42; Lk 22:39-46;

Jn 12:27-28;

Hebr 5:7-9

Ps 43:5 - Mk 14:33-34

Lk 22:41 - see Acts 7:60; 9:40; 20:36; 21:5

In need one need to kneel down and pray.

Lk 22:44

Lk 22:44.

Ps 43:5 - John 11:33; John 13:11.


As the Son of God, He has to drink the ful cup of the power of evil and death.

Only in this way, He shall make it powerless.

On this mount of Olives,

Light collides with Darkness;

Life collides with Death.

This blood was shed for YOU and ME.

Human and Divine Will

Jesus’ human will fears this moment; But, the Son of God surrounds Himself to the will of God.

See John 12:27-28.

‘Father, save me from this hour’? - human will.

Father, glorify your name.” - Son’s (divine) will.

The Cross becomes the glorification of God. Who can understand this mystery?

At the Cross, the real goodness, perfect love destroy all the power of evil.

Here, we also discover something very important.

Human will reaches its perfection by surrounding/embracing God’s will.

After sin in the garden of evil, we think that by embracing God’s will we will lose our freedom.

In Christ, “our will embraces God’s will” overcoming the power of sin.

Abba, Father

Here, God the Son speaks to God the Father.

Here, the Son took within himself human will and transformed it into the will of the Son.

Thus, the prayer in that garden is a dialogue between the Father and the Son.

Hebr 5:7.

It is a prayer that embraces the entire Passion from the Mount of Olives till the death on the Cross.

It is a priestly prayer. Jesus brings our humanity and presents it before God.

He was heard

But How?

Lk 22:43 (1) relieved from his fear.

(2) Resurrection - freedom from the power of death by the Father.

(3) Jesus died for us and he also rose for us. Resurrection is the defeat of death as such.

John 12:27-28.

From the Cross flows new life. At the Cross, Jesus became the source of life for us. At Cross, death was defeated.

Jesus was heard on behalf of all of us.

Therefore, we read Hebr 5:9-10; (see Ps 110:4).


Jn 11:47-53 - (see Mk 14:1).

The priests and the pharisees - two main groups in the time of Jesus.

Jn 11:48 - this statement united both groups.

It seems that Sanhedrin did not want to decide on the death of Jesus. Only after the speech of the High Priest, they finally gave in.

Paradoxically, the decision Caiaphas - Jn 11:50 - fell within the plan of God.

But, his own decision and motivation was not the will of God but it was his own will.

Jesus before Sanhedrin

Two line of accusation:

1. Speech about the destruction of the temple - this did not work out.

2. The question about the messianic claim - two high priests face each other; according to order of Aaron and according to the order of Melchizedek.

Mk 14:62

Mk 14:62.

Ps 2:7 (see Ps 110:3).

“I am” (Ex 3:14);

Ps 110:1 and Daniel 7:13.

Mt 26:63.

Mt 16:16 - but, then during the Passion, Peter who first confessed that truth, now denies that he knows Christ, the Son of God.

1 Tim 6:13 - Jesus;

Mt 16:17 - “flesh and blood” controlled Peter during the Passion.

Mt 26:65 - Jesus’ testimony sealed His fate.

Good Friday

Good Friday

From early morning till 9 am (Mark 15:1-21)

Jesus is turned over to Pilate;

Jesus is rejected by the people;

Jesus is mocked;

The way of the cross.

Before Pilate

Jn 18:28-29.

Sabbath is important; how about a life of an innocent person?

Jn 18:34-35.

How come the Jewish authorities give away a Jew?

How come the Jewish authorities are so concerned about the Roman Emperor?

Th King of Truth

Jn 18:36-37.

A kingdom not of this world; a king without an army?

He is not a threat to the Roma Empire.

Jn 18:38.

What is Truth?

God is the whole truth, the highest one, the first one (St. Thomas Aquinas).

“I am the truth” (John 14:6).

The world is truthful as long as it reveals God, its Source.

Giving “witness to the truth” equals making God’s kingdom and will reign in our lives.

Truth, like Jesus, seems in front of this world powerless.

And yet, like Jesus, it is invincible.

Pilate’s fears

Jn 19:8 - fear of Jesus;

Jn 19:12 - fear of the Emperor;

Between these two, he had to make his decision.

Jesus versus Barabbas

Bar - Abba - Son of (a) father;

Jesus - Son of the Father;

Barabbas - a claim to be a Messiah

But what a difference.

One peaceful, one violent.

Scourging (Is 53:5)

Is 53:5.

Very cruel punishment.

Mk 15:21 - the fact that Simon has to help Jesus;

Mk 15:44-45 - the fact that Jesus died so quickly shows how cruel was that scourging.

King’s Crown

Mt 27:28-29; Mk 15:17-18; Jn 19:2-3;

‘Hail, the king of the Jews!”

Jn 19:5 - Ecce homo - behold, the man!

From 9 am till noon (Mark 15:22-32)

Jesus is crucified at 9 am (Mark 15:25);

Jesus is mocked again;

From noon till 3 pm (Mark 15:33)

Deep darkness covering the land/the earth

Forgive them

Lk 23:34;

Acts 3:17. 1 Tim 1:13;

Not knowing.

But, how Paul, an expert in the Scriptures can say that he was ignorant?

Ignorance that saves?

See Mt 2:4-6.

Mocking Jesus

Those who pass by (Mk 15:29-30) - another temptation;

Sanhedrin (Wisdom 2:10-20.18 - Mt 27:42-43) - another temptation.

Those crucified with Christ (Mt 27:38; Mk 15:27; Jn 18:40).

Lk 23:43;

Even after a totally failed life there is always hope for us - “Good Thief” is an example;

Paradise - be with God - salvation.

"You forgave Mary (Magdalene), and heard the plea of the thief, I also trust in salvation"

Dies ire

Psalm 22

Mk 15:34 - Ps 22:1;

The whole passion is in the Psalm 22

In Psalms, it is the whole Christ that prays as Head and Body (St. Augustine).

Jn 19:24 - Ps 22:19 - Christ’s tunic:

The robe of the high priest - Josephus

The unity of the Church - the Fathers.

I Thirst

Mk 15:23 - Jn 19:28 - (Ps 69:22; Is 5:2);

The Fourth Cup

The Women

Mk 15:40-41;

Jn 19:37; Zech 12:10; Rev 1:7;

Zech 13:1;

Jn 19:25-25 - The woman - Gen 2:23; Rev 12:1-6.

Eph 5:31ff

New Eve

Death on the Cross

From 3 pm till evening (Mark 15:34-47);

Jesus dies on the cross at 3 pm;

The veil to the temple is rent;

Cosmic character of his death;

Leading to faith - Mk 15:39.

Ex 12:46 - Jn 19:34 - Jn 1:29.

Death on the Cross

Zech 13:1 - Blood and Water - Eucharist and Baptism.


Mk 15:43; Lk 23:51; Jn 19:38 - Jn 3:1-8

Mt 27:60; Lk 23:53; Jn 19:41 - new tomb;

Jn 19:40 - and the Shroud of Turin.

Holy Saturday

Holy Saturday - Between Mark 15:42 and Mark 16:1

The Apostles’ Creed says that after His death, Jesus descended into hell.

Hell here should be understood as Hades;

We find 1 Peter 3:18-20; 4-6

We also have Matt 27:51-53

It is worth to read here the book of Wisdom (2:10-13; 16-20; especially 3:1-4)

Easter Sunday

Easter Sunday

Mark 16:1-8/20;

Christ is risen;

Christ is the Lord (Phil 2:9-11).

There is a promise in Daniel 12:2-3; then Rev 21:4.

1 Cor 15:20 - the first fruit of resurrection.

1 Cor 15:14-15.

Easter Sunday

Mk 9:9-10 - what does it mean?

It is not coming back to this life - Mk 5:22-24; 35-43; nor Lk 7:11-17; nor Jn 11:1-44.

It is an entry to a totally different mode of existence. From this new existence He comes to us.

Two traditions regarding Easter

Confessions (Lk 24:34 - Rom 10:9 - 1 Cor 15:3-8) - only men are mentioned

Narration (Acts 9:3; Jn 21:4-7; Lk 24:36-43) - women take the leading role.


In Jewish tradition

Two or three witnesses could only be men.

A testimony of a woman was not binding.

So, to proclaim officially that Jesus is risen in front of Israel (and the world), the testimony had to be that of men.


Christ died according to the Scriptures (1 Cor 15:3);

His death was not an accident.

He died for our sins.

Then, He was buried.

But, then the tomb was empty.

What happened with Jesus’ body?


John 20:1-3? Or Ps 16:9-11 (Acts 2:26-27).

Acts 2:29 - till now there is the tomb of David in Jerusalem. And till now, when you enter the tomb of Jesus you will not find His body there.

1 Cor 15:4.

Hosea 6:1-2?

The feast of first fruits. That Sunday was the feast of the first fruits.


1 Cor 15:5-8 - There were many who saw the risen Jesus.

But, then let us look at the narrations. For example Mk 16:8 - with its abrupt ending.

What do we get?

1. Empty tomb;

2. The message that Jesus is risen.

3. Information for the disciples and Peter (Mk 16:7 - Mk 14:28).

In “confessions”, one confesses the truth that Christ is risen.

But in “narrations”, the encounter with the risen Christ is describes the way it happened.

Paul as an example

For Paul:

Acts 9:3 - light (Acts 26:13)

Acts 9:5 - voice (Acts 26:14 - that speaks in Hebrew)

Paul as an example

For Paul’s companions:

Acts 9:7 - heard the voice but saw none;

Acts 22:7 - saw the light but did not hear (or did not understand the voice speaking to Paul);

Acts 26:14 - all fell to the ground.

Paul as an example

It is clear that the experience of Paul and his companions differ.

Light and Voice is also see on Mount Tabor.

Acts 26:16-17 - a clear mission is given to Paul.

Light and Voice and Mission.

The Gospels

1. Jesus is at first seen as an ordinary man.

Walks with the disciples to Emmaus;

Allows Thomas to touch His wounds;

Eats a piece of fish with the disciples.

2. And yet, He is different than before Easter - the disciples cannot recognise Him.

Mary Magdalene and the disciples from Emmaus.

Jn 21:4.

The Gospels

3. It takes something to recognise Jesus.

A name - in case of Mary;

An event - in case of the disciples fishing (Jn 21:12);

A meal - in case of those two from Emmaus.

4. Jesus can appear and disappear the way He wants.

In a closed room;

after the meal in Emmaus.

Thus, he is not bound anymore by the laws of time and space, like us.

The Gospels

5. Paradox - He is the same and yet different. He lives on a totally different level.

But, He is not a spirit/ ghost - Lk 24:36-43

See 1 Sam 28:12-14 - Samuel comes from the land of the dead and Saul will go there with Him.

Jesus comes from the “land of life - ZOE”; He is the source of Life.

Risen Lord eating our food?

Lk 24:41-42;

But, there are also other fragments: Emmaus story (Lk 24:30);

Jn 21:9-13.

Acts 1:3-4 - eating with them meal.

Risen Lord eating our food?

Three elements:

1. Appear;

2. Speaking;

3. Dining with them.

Risen Lord eating our food?

Eating Salt?

Synalizomenos - “eating with them salt”;

In the OT, salt was used in meals that established lasting covenants (Num 18:19; 2 Chron 13:5).

Thus, “eating salt with them” refers to the Last Supper - that new and everlasting covenant.

Mk 9:49-50 - Lev 2:13


An encounter with the risen Lord took place in history but it goes beyond history.

The risen Christ shows us the future - something that God has prepared for all of us.

We were created for immortality (Wisdom 2:23).

Easter is not confined to Christ alone.

The resurrection of Christ has affected all of us.

It creates something totally new.

It goes beyond our wildest imagination.


He ascended into heaven

The period during which the risen Lord appeared to the disciples was constrained.

Paul was aware that he was the last to encounter the risen Lord.

The main propose of these appearances was to gather a group of disciples who would testify that Christ lives, that He is not in the tomb.

He ascended into heaven

Mt 28:18-19; Acts 1:8; Acts 22:21

But, the message also contains something else:

1. Christ is alive;

2. Christ shall come again to judge the living and the dead.

Where is He “now” then?

Acts 2:33;

Lk 24:50-53!

Jesus left them but they are happy - praising God. How come?

They must be sure of His presence (Mt 28:20)

It seems that sitting at the right hand of the Father is another mode of being present.

Sitting at God’s right hand, means participating in God’s reign over space and time.

Mk 6:45-52 - thinking of Christ’s ascension in this way.

In between

We live in between Christ’s Ascension and His coming.

This time in between should be marked by our “readiness” - “be awake” (Mk 13:36). But, also by longing.

And Prayer (Rev 22:20) - we should not love the world more than the Lord.

Saint Bernard Clarvoix

Triple coming of Christ:

1. In flesh and weakness - incarnation.

2. In spirit and power - the coming in the middle (adventus medium);

3. In glory and majesty - the last coming.